QURANIC STRUCTURE, CONSTITUTION & TEACHINGS EXAMINED
The sunni quran is divided into 30 almost equal but large AJZA parts, for those who wish to complete the reading in a month ie one part a day. It is divided into 7 almost equal MANAAZIL parts, for those who wish to complete reading in a week ie one manzil a day. It is also divided into even shorter parts called rukus for readers to recite it during their prayers etc. It has 114 chapters called suras of various lengths, which are divided into verses of various lengths. All this was done by ordinary people long after Muhammadâ€™s death. You will normally see references as chapter numbers and verse numbers. Muhammad gave it to people bit by bit because he claimed it was revealed like that by god and this is called chronological order of the quran. It was allegedly put together in the present form by order of Abubakar some time after Muhammadâ€™s death. Word quran simply means recitation or a reading. It should have been called divine constitution for humanity if it was revealed by god for this purpose. Calling it a reading does not sound right, does it? Like other alleged divine scriptures the quran too does not meet even the challenges of its own. As a result the quran faces similar criticisms from the sincere educated community as any other religious scripture. The quran does not contain anything clearcut in order to prove its divine origin and it does not tell any clearcut way to prove its divine origin. It has not been proven divine by muslims so far and it is becoming difficult for them to do so in the future because of increase in the scientific knowledge and principles. It contains contradictions with in itself as well as it is inconsistent with obvious self evident facts. It is seriously flawed for it does not put forward any clearcut guidance for people to follow so that they could progress and attain peace and prosperity in this life so that they could believe in it for hereafter too.
Muslims claim, the quran is a perfect divine constitution for living in this life but the quran is full of verses that put maximum possible emphasis on living in this life for hereafter. The contradiction is obvious ie we can produce better constitutions than the quran for living in this life and prove thereby that our lives are better than live of muslims as far as living standard in this life is concerned. So god seems to fail muslims. Now living in this life for hereafter is not even possible, for you cannot live in this world at all by ignoring the life in this world. So god is asking muslims to do the impossible. Now if this life does not matter for muslims then they should not bother looking for better life out side their own states and if it does matter for them then they themselves are proving the quran wrong, for quran is saying this life is not important but they are saying no, it is important. It is simple as that. The quran is full of roundabout senseless talk without any substance. Most of the muslim world is very poor, very little educated and therefore they cannot realise the defects in the quran. Further more those who are educated from powerful backgrounds they are busy exploiting working classes in order to benefit themselves. All this because of their tribal based religion and its systems and practices. All tribal, religion and cultural based social structures are oppressive and suppressive from global societies at large to individual kingdoms, from individual kingdoms to individual tribes, from individual tribes to individual clans, and from individual clans to individual families. Individuals in such societies are only free to criticise each other according these set norms that are primitive not based on universal intellectual wisdom.
Anything against this norm of societies is thought evil which societies must keep out, because it will free people from undue control of each other eg parents want to keep full control over their children and husbands want to keep their wives under their thumb. Likewise clan chieftains want to keep members of their clans under their control and so tribal chiefs want to keep their clans in their place. Similarly the king or the ruler of the kingdom or country wishes to hold all tribal chiefs under his rule. Thanks to indoctrination mechanism this primitive system of society somehow suits all people in such states as have it even though it causes such suffering and destruction of so many people in the society. Even if you give these people any chance of freedom they remain in same state of affairs. For example, take a members of tribal society and place him in the western society. This person would not like the freedom the western system offers to individuals. This has proven true about immigrants from such societies who live in the west with their families yet uphold same authoritarian and barbaric beliefs, values and practices. People who came to Britain from India for example, brought their ideological, political, economic, social and cultural baggage with them and are fighting to keep it that way. More from amongst muslims than other faiths. In fact if it was possible for them they would turn the west into their kind of society from which they themselves ran away. What a sensible people, arenâ€™t they?
What is important to realise is the fact that in these societies people are forced to be dependent right from the beginning and so they no longer have confidence to be independent ever in their life. This culture of dependency can only be changed by outside agents because insiders are as good as dead intellectually because of centuries of indoctrination. The only hope is that new generations of these people who are born in Britain if educated in British schools might learn to live like Britons. The backwardness is not entirely religion based rather it is a mixture of religion as well as of political, economic, social and cultural structures whereby some people have advantages over others. There are only three possibilities about the way the societies exist. A) People create a social norm out of intellectual wisdom and practice it, B) Norm themselves arise out of the way people interact without really thinking about it and C) A mixture of both A and B. For example, take sexual relationships, people get involved with each other sexually first and then think about the consequences afterwards. Most arranged marriages in all backward communities are based on this practice. They are not forced but not free either, because it is not individuals who choose partners to arrange marriage rather partners are chosen by others and the pair are asked if they agree or not. They themselves do not know anything about marriage nor have any plans worked out about it. Only intellectually mature people think first and then act ie plan marriage and family etc etc before taking any steps in this direction. All backward societies practice segregation of sexes but it is not possible in its entirety ie situations arise when sexes end up together and things happen against social norms, because we cannot defeat our own very nature if social norms are against our natural needs.
Religions arose out of this situation and this is why religions are primitive just as the societies are which gave rise to religions or to which religions gave rise. It is not that one thing was there from the beginning as a complete system and then arose another complete systems rather the social complexity we see today arose out of simple actions and reactions. This, one can observe within a family that children are born and then parent and children act and react to each other and new situations arise out of that daily life. Some families stick together others drift apart. Thus came about all social structures. The urge of sexual reproduction brought individuals of both sexes together that brought about children creating a basic primitive family structure. This gave rise to clans which turned into tribes and so on and so forth. As things changed in practice they brought about changes in ideology and that lead to changes in practice and so the cycle continues. Yet muslim scholars claim that the quran has a perfect divine constitution in it for mankind. The question is, if it has a perfect constitution in it then why canâ€™t it be seen or why donâ€™t they prove it so that people could see it for themselves. The truth is that the quran does not contain any constitution rather people invent one in the name of the quran, which gives rise to divisions amongst themselves. Because inventing a constitution or law on the basis of a scripture is not the same as existing in the scripture as a part of it. This is why the quran is incomplete or defective in its purpose ie no perfect goals nor complete in numbers ie they are not as many as they ought to be. People are fighting between themselves only because the laws are made in the name of the quran and they are not in the quran. I will also talk about laws in the quran which are inconsistent with their objectives elsewhere.
This clearly shows the quran lacks a lot of information which is essential for a proper constitution. If the quran is a perfect law then why muslims need to make laws themselves and therefore they disagree between themselves? What is the point of having such a divine guidance which is in bits and pieces leading to confusion and divisions. Remember it is not people who do not wish to be guided but that wording in the scripture is such that it means different things to different people and that is why it is incomplete and defective objectively. Even if we accept the possibility of divine revelation, the expected arrangement of a divine text would be something like this ie god should introduce himself to people, proclaim his divinity to them, provide them with clearcut proof and its definition for their verification (ie divine information which can only and only come from god) and the clearcut way the proof proves his divinity and tell them about the purpose of creation, give them a complete constitution and finally demand submission of them for their own good and leave them to do as they please. He should treat people like perfect parents treat their children. His warnings should not be about faith in god but about how we treat each other just like parents warn their children when they misbehave with each other and so end up hurting each other. It was essential for god to do this because people are not born educated and it was straight forward and simple so that people if they wished could become aware of the case against them. However if one studies the structure of the quran, it does not take into account the fact that people are born illiterate and ignorant and begins with a prayer to god, which introduces god as a merciful being who sustains the kingdoms. We are then told that there is a day of judgement and that those who follow the straight path will be rewarded and those who will not will be punished. The chapter ends without any mention of any kind of proof or way of proving it, starting with talk of compassion and ending up with threats. So one asks, what is the proof for our verification that there is a god or that he is merciful or terrorist etc etc or that how do we know these statement or claims are truly from god and not from Muhammad himself?
If we go to second chapter, the case is exactly the same ie there are many statements and claims but no proof or way of proving them. All we are told is that look at this or look at that, how it was made or done. The quran tells, it was all done by god, he said to it, be, and it was, but what is the proof and how can we verify that if that was the case? Note that this time the chapter starts with the assertion rather than the proof that the book is from god and that it only guides those who fear god. Then belief in the unseen is encouraged without any proof and so the mention of punishment in hereafter is brought in if one does not believe in what the quran says. This goes on chapter after chapter. Notice also that when people at the time ask for a proof, instead of providing them with a proof, the quran threatens them with punishment in here and in hereafter or tells them about rewards people will get if they believed. At times the quran brings in the idea that many ancient people were destroyed by god because they did not believe in this kind of messages but others were saved from punishment and that they will be rewarded in hereafter. The quran itself clearly tells the same technique was used with ancient people whereby some believed and others did not. Nowhere in the quran will one find any proof given to any people ever at all or the way of proving the proof except for miracles like the ones that are found in all the existing religious scriptures ie alleged divine acts against the laws of nature. For example, nine miracles by Moses and some by Jesus etc etc. I do not wish to say anything more about such miracles, for I have explained the problems with such miracles elsewhere in my essay.
This is the reason people of Muhammadâ€™s time say, he made up the quran himself and so did the people before them to their prophets like him, tells the quran itself. He makes people sick by insulting their beliefs and telling them, believe in the quran, believe in the quran, so they say, he is a mental case or cursed by their gods or that he is possessed by the evil spirits etc. Remember his people were not all polytheists but also monotheists and atheists, powerful as well as destitute. Atheists argued that a man could not be sent divine revelation for guidance of others. They argued that universe existed all by itself because it is not perfect and therefore could not originate from the perfect creator as assumed by Muhammad in the quran. Muhammad does not stop there, he says to polytheists, show me the proof that what you believe is true. They say to him, look, we have no proof but only words and practices or traditions of our ancestors and this is how they lived. Remember, polytheists were never against faith in one god. They never persecuted jews etc for this reason, so all stories about Muhammad being assaulted by pagans are made up or have other reasons like Muhammad assaulted and insulted them and tried to do away with their political setup. Anyway, they say to Muhammad that if what you say is true then prove it to us and we will follow you, but Muhammad couldnâ€™t prove himself right either. Instead he begins to insult their beliefs yet they do not insult his beliefs. These statements are clearly found in the quran in this context. The quran also tells story of Abraham and how he insults beliefs of his father and ancestors without proving himself right. Similar stories are also told about other ancient prophets. This clearly shows the pattern how political changes have been brought about of which Muhammad is aware and that Muhammad and his followers were not a gentle people as liberal muslims of today would have us believe. These people were very cruel and barbaric who did not tolerate polytheists when they had the upper hand and they will not do so today if they had the upper hand. If you do not believe me, donâ€™t, just try and criticise islam, quran or muhammad in muslim media and wait for response from muslims. This is the situation when muslims have no power and they are as poor as they can be, what do you think they will be capable of if they were the sole super power in the world? I leave that for you to imagine.
Islam was not a logical religion. Word islam has two meanings a) peace and b) submission. Perhaps it was chosen to confuse people. Because in case of peace it had to be acceptable logically and in case of submission it had to be forced onto people. The historical islam was spread through violence. People were given the ultimatum to embrace islam or become muslim protectorate and live like 3rd class citizens of an islamic empire. To encourage men to fight for islam, they were enticed through status, sex, and booty in this world and paradise and hoories (ie beautiful virgins) were offered for hereafter. Islam succeeded because most Arabs were poor, uncivilized and uncultivated. When they saw an easy way of making a living they fell for it. I am saying easy because what else uneducated and unskilled people can do to make a living. Even today people look for easy ways of making money and they play all sorts of tricks and those who are not good in anything they turn to crime. People rob rich people and banks even today despite the fact that there are strong security measures which were not there 1400 years back. Muhammad may have got such ideas after travelling for his business when he saw how other people used to live. It took him years to plan this whole thing and to establish it.
The quran challenges the people of its time to bring a chapter of a few verses like the ones in the quran if you think the quran is not the word of god. The problem with challenge is that it makes no sense whatsoever, because it does not tell what the challenge is about as regard to quranic text. It is written in ordinary defective ancient Arabic language of the time which people spoke otherwise how could they understand what the quran said? The implication is that if you understand something you can produce it as well. Look how science and technology has developed our observations in the natural world. Moreover the quranic text is such that it shows breaks as if one needs to add things to it in order to make proper sentences or sense of it. This could be result of various additions and omissions by the editors of the quran. The quran does not contain any special or significant information over and above the knowledge of other people of the time in the world. So unless the aspects of a challenge are made clear who can compare two things and say whether they are equal or that one is better or worse than the other? If I challenge people that no one can make as good a table as I can then no one can meet this challenge until I make clear what I am talking about ie in what respect no one can produce something like mine, because in some sense each and everything is unique that is why it is different from the rest in the world. So I must say why none can produce something like the one I have produced. Is it because it is strong? Is it because it has beautiful colour? Is it because it is big? Is it because it is small? Is it because it is nicely shaped? Or is it because it has so many uses?
So you see, the challenge must be made clear for the contenders as well as the judges so that if one comes up with the answer of my challenge I cannot say this is not what I meant by my challenge. Obviously, we are used to inventing things as well as improving them, so the quran is no challenge for us. Moreover the quran itself tells us that the people of Muhammadâ€™s time clearly told him, they can create not only a few verses like the ones in the quran but even a whole book like the quran. However muslims are deluded because on one hand they say that the quran is word of god therefore no one can bring anything like it ever, so if you bring something like it they deny it on that basis, the while on the other they keep on challenging and without making their challenge clear thus they trap themselves between the rock and a hard place but, do they realise it? Not at all. It is like I say that I am a god and no one can challenge that I am a god because I say so. You are going to say, what kind of roundabout challenge is this that makes no sense because it cannot be tested independently. Likewise the quran is word of god because the quran says so and none can produce like the quran because the quran says so. Is there any way these claims could be tested? No but if yes, how? Many claim the quran is full of scientific facts but fail to realise the very first thing about science ie the principle of doubting anything and everything till verified. Even if something proves to be correct at any given time and place yet doubt must remain whether it will remain true for ever thereafter or will it be disproved the next day.
So the nature of existence in this world is not compatible with the existence of a god or revelation which demands belief without doubt. Since the quran demands blind faith in itself, by this very statement it proves itself false. If one cannot believe such things for which there is a proof as absolute truth for ever then how can one believe in something as true at all for which one does not have any proof whatsoever? Moreover if believing in a religion does not take away our doubts what is the point in having a religion? Is it because there is a fear in oneâ€™s mind about the unknown that one does not let go religion? In that case is there really anything unknown about after death or does religion provide any certainty for after death that we must believe in religion? The fact is religion has no answers or certainties whatsoever. This is why only uneducated or unthoughtful people believe in religion. Human knowledge only and only came from those who were insightful and paid great attention to the detail of things. Religion comes from backward people as individual thought and it is followed only and only by backward people who are dragging their feet in the real world. If naturally evolved religion was something special and useful for daily life we all would have followed it but it is not. As for organised religion that is invention of feudals and priests etc to exploit ordinary people for their own ends. This is evil in its ultimate form that has always destroyed humanity, so we are better without it.
As for the quran, what is so special about the quran that people cannot produce like it when people have produced better guides in sense of constitutions ie ideological, political, social, cultural, economic structures and practices. We the humans have produced better governments, organisation, rules and regulations etc etc than the alleged divine scriptures and their followers. People have produced better languages, arts, sciences and fiction in form of prose, poetry and drama etc etc. It is people who invented all the languages which we all speak with complex grammatical rules. Has world not moved on since the time of Muhammad, so people need to wake up to this reality. By challenging people for producing a sura ie a chapter like it, the quran has shown a serious flaw in itself by not making the challenge clear for the challengers and the judges. This is not the only claim in the quran there are many other claims in it as well, which have not been clarified and so they show serious flaws in the quran. Some muslims claim the quran captivates the listener. This claim needs to be put in perspective. You see it all depends on the interest of the listener. If you attend muslim religious gatherings, many people ignore listening to the quran and they talk to each other instead. This is true of a people who themselves believe in the divinity of the quran and are brought up to love listening to the quran.
As for captivation of attention, the quran is not unique in that, for people naturally love things they like but they like different things or even same thing but for different reasons. People create beautiful songs, music, fiction or bring to light new facts. All these are bound to have their affect if they did not no one would bother doing them. People like songs because they may like the music or voice of the singer or because of the words in the song etc etc. Likewise some people and that includes nonmuslims as well may have developed the taste for listening to the recitation of the quran. There is absolutely nothing wrong with that, for we all develop taste for different things through out our lives. I like Indian food because that is how I was brought up by my parents. The food now I like in Europe does not have to be the same but it must have similar taste with which I was brought up or I may not like it. Likewise even though I was brought up listening to Indian music, I would like all similar sounds and rhythms etc etc regardless where they come from. So if recitation of the quran seems similar to something to someone who was brought up with that then it ought to have affect on him and so there is no surprise in that. Some people in school like one kind of subjects the others others. Some people want to be doctors other engineers and so on. Some people may like recitation of the quran by Qaari Abdul Baasat Muhammad Abdussamad of Egypt other may like recitation by Qaari Shaakir Qaasmi of Pakistan. Qaari Waheed Zafar Qaasmi of Pakistan is famous for his Nâ€™ATS or NASDEEDS ie songs of praise in respect of holy prophet of Islam. People may not like listening to the quran when it is recited by someone who hasnâ€™t the gift of voice or rhythm etc. They may like a lecture on the quran or islam by one person but not by another for one or the reason. It all depends on what one knows about how we develop a taste for something, whether it is food or clothes or whatever.
Another problem with the quran is that it is full of repetitions. Read the story of Adam, Noah, people of Ad and Thamud, Abraham, Lot, Moses, Jesus etc etc. Who would do such a thing in the same book? Particularly if there are only a few people who are literate and to memorise a book the size of the quran takes years even today in relative peaceful times whereas Muhammad and his soldiers were always at war with other people. Moreover time should be used more productively than wasted in memorising or copying repetitions. These stories of ancient are repeated so many times that people said to Muhammad, the quran is only a medley of repeated tales of the ancient whereas we are looking for proof not mere tales that are repeated over and over, again and again. By no means I am criticizing the tales alone but their such repetition as well that the quran could have been reduced to a shorter text. Also there could have been more details of things which people needed instead of needless information. The quran does not explain how people should form a perfect ideology, a perfect political system, a perfect social structure, a perfect culture, a perfect economic infrastructure etc etc, for example. The reason given by muslims is that details of things would have increased the volume of the quranic text. They fail to realise that repetitions are doing that anyway, are they not? When muslims are questioned about the need for hadith and fiqh, they say the quran would have become a lengthy text that is why all things were not revealed in the quran, so why unnecessary or needless repetitions? Moreover, accepting Hadith and Fiqh as an essential part of islamic faith does that not increase the text and so more work anyway? Similarly, if one looks at verses about the day of judgement, reward and punishment, attributes of god etc etc, they too have been repeated so many times that they serve no useful purpose other than indoctrination in the hope that need for proof may be masked or replaced. It is like brain washing people into believing things which are actually not there or true, for there is no proof whatsoever in the quran about what it claims throughout. Beside this the quran also contains other wrong information and ideas as well as contradiction and unfair and damaging beliefs, rules and regulations.
As for poverty, Muhammad himself thought that poverty was only and only due to rich and powerful people exploiting destitute using religion as a mechanism and that is absolutely true in most cases in ancient world and Arabia at the time but not in all cases. The other reasons were illiteracy and ignorance about the world in which we live and it still continues before our very eyes. Because people who have knowledge of right kind of ideological, political, economic, social and cultural structures and practices or the real world they are more able to make right choices in life in ideas and practices. They invent thing, mass produce them and distribute them widely creating a livelihood for themselves as well as produce a lots of jobs for a lot of other people elsewhere as well. Simply forcing rich and powerful to hand over what they have to poor is not the answer to the problem of poverty in every case, especially today in democratic world. This is so because if clever people who work hard are made to end up with nothing or that they end up with nothing then they lose the courage or incentive for doing anything in the future too, for fear of being robbed or not getting the fair return on their efforts. People need to make all possible effort to better themselves and others need to be helpful without any real loss to themselves. In fact if rich and powerful people are sensible and fair minded enough they would subsidise projects like education for the poor people, because when they have education they could be even more useful and productive to them than being uneducated. In other words scratching each otherâ€™s back ie positive co-operation between people is the best way forward for humanity. Both parties contributing towards each other can make rich richer and at the same time could improve the life of poor people. Thus our world could become a better place for all of us. Pushing each other down would sink all of us into abyss of hopelessness, despair and destruction and pushing each other up would raise us all to heights of progress and prosperity.
Anyway the idea of frightening people into submission did not work for Muhammad, because powerful clever chiefs knew it was a nonsense and simple minded people began to ignore this world altogether in comparison to hereafter. So poverty remained where it was except for a short period of time and again only in Arabia. We are not talking about Muhammad as a conqueror because there were many like that before him as well as after him ie he was not the only person in the world to be successful in his cause. So long as one can gather and hold support the cause whether right or wrong continues or so long as cause is such that apparently suits people they keep it alive. The quran in its context holds the idea of hereafter as a main theme around which revolves everything else. It only permits people to take only as much from this world as is absolutely necessary. This idea is a failure because it does not leave room for people to research and explore universe for progress and prosperity of humanity. In fact it discourages getting involved into research and exploration of things and treats these things as a waste of time, instead it encourages people to spread the faith of islam by word as well as by sword. The use of force brings in livelihood for many because when they defeat their enemies they also take away their possessions and their women and children whom they could force to work for them as slaves. These slaves and maids were useful and productive because they came from amongst the more civilised people and they could be sold for livelihood or becoming wealthier. Anyway the verses which tell us to observe this or that thing or universe are not for verification or for exploration and research for progress and prosperity of mankind but for muslims to convince nonmuslims by assertion alone that god exists and that the quran is revelation by god. They are in context of baseless assumptuous arguments rather than scientific verifications ie some times we are told to look at a camel or universe how is it created? That is to say, some one must have created it ie Allah. They do not tell how exactly a camel was created so that we could verify that ourselves.
Some times we are told that how can god have a son when he doesnâ€™t even have a wife. Note that this makes story of birth of Jesus without father a contradiction ie god is saying for a birth of a child both mother and father are needed yet we are told that Jesus was created without a human father. Some times we are told if there were other gods as well then they would have had battles with each other etc etc. Such arguments are also used to make people think that if people have no explanations for things that are happening all around them but they are happening anyway, then why is it that they think it is necessary that there should be something explainable when it comes to life after death? In other words people should accept whatever they are told about hereafter without any proof or questions, for everything does not need to have an explanation regardless whether it should. People who believe in a god or gods for that matter still use these nonsense arguments in order to prove their beliefs are not without any foundations. The other point about the quran is that we all know the changes that have come about during the last 1400 years. No way could god send a book for people of the whole world for such a long period of time because that would have needed such a vast amount of information that people 1400 years back could not handle or cope with, for they were relatively far too simple and limited as regard to today. They needed verifiable divine information for their time as we need it for our time and of which the quran or any other alleged divine scripture for that matter is absolutely devoid.